Windows

Default window data

The 88 "default" windows and corresponding performance data were developed by the Australian Fenestration Rating Council (AFRC) for use in NatHERS accredited software. The windows are intended to provide representative performance values over a wide range of currently available frame and glass combinations. Performance values of individual frame and glass combinations from the market may differ from these "default" windows.

  

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Simple Glazing System Descriptor

Operating Type 

Frame Material 

Glazing System Type

Outer Glass Type

U- Value 

SHGC

VLT 

Vision %

1

Single-glazed, clear

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium

Single-glazing

clear

6.7

0.57

0.54

0.59%

2

Single-glazed, tint

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium

Single-glazing

tint

6.6

0.41

0.46

0.63%

3

Single-glazed, high solar gain low E

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium

Single-glazing

high solar gain low E

5.4

0.49

0.51

0.62%

4

Single-glazed, low solar gain low E

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium

Single-glazing

low solar gain low E

5.6

0.36

0.35

0.57%

5

Single-glazed, clear

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium

Single-glazing

clear

6.7

0.70

0.68

0.76%

6

Single-glazed, tint

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium

Single-glazing

tint

6.6

0.49

0.58

0.79%

7

Single-glazed, high solar gain low E

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium

Single-glazing

high solar gain low E

5.4

0.58

0.62

0.75%

8

Single-glazed, low solar gain low E

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium

Single-glazing

low solar gain low E

5.6

0.41

0.42

0.68%

9

Double-glazed, clear / clear, air fill

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium

Double-glazing with air fill

clear

4.8

0.51

0.48

0.59%

10

Double-glazed, tint / clear, air fill

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium

Double-glazing with air fill

tint

5.2

0.35

0.42

0.64%

11

Double-glazed, high solar gain low E / clear, air fill

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium

Double-glazing with air fill

high solar gain low E

4.3

0.47

0.50

0.66%

12

Double-glazed, low solar gain low E / clear, air fill

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium

Double-glazing with air fill

low solar gain low E

4.9

0.33

0.33

0.60%

13

Double-glazed, clear / clear, air fill

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium

Double-glazing with air fill

clear

4.8

0.59

0.57

0.69%

14

Double-glazed, tint / clear, air fill

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium

Double-glazing with air fill

tint

5.2

0.39

0.49

0.73%

15

Double-glazed, high solar gain low E / clear, air fill

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium

Double-glazing with air fill

high solar gain low E

4.3

0.53

0.57

0.76%

16

Double-glazed, low solar gain low E / clear, air fill

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium

Double-glazing with air fill

low solar gain low E

4.9

0.33

0.38

0.69%

17

Double-glazed, clear / clear, argon fill

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium

Double-glazing with argon fill

clear

4.5

0.50

0.48

0.58%

18

Double-glazed, tint / clear, argon fill

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium

Double-glazing with argon fill

tint

5.1

0.32

0.38

0.58%

19

Double-glazed, high solar gain low E / clear, argon fill

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium

Double-glazing with argon fill

high solar gain low E

4.1

0.47

0.50

0.66%

20

Double-glazed, low solar gain low E / clear, argon fill

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium

Double-glazing with argon fill

low solar gain low E

4.8

0.34

0.35

0.63%

21

Double-glazed, clear / clear, argon fill

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium

Double-glazing with argon fill

clear

4.5

0.61

0.59

0.72%

22

Double-glazed, tint / clear, argon fill

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium

Double-glazing with argon fill

tint

5.1

0.36

0.46

0.72%

23

Double-glazed, high solar gain low E / clear, argon fill

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium

Double-glazing with argon fill

high solar gain low E

4.1

0.52

0.56

0.74%

24

Double-glazed, low solar gain low E / clear, argon fill

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium

Double-glazing with argon fill

low solar gain low E

4.8

0.34

0.40

0.73%

25

Single-glazed, clear

Hinged/Projected

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Single-glazing

clear

5.4

0.56

0.55

0.61%

26

Single-glazed, tint

Hinged/Projected

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Single-glazing

tint

5.4

0.41

0.48

0.67%

27

Single-glazed, high solar gain low E

Hinged/Projected

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Single-glazing

high solar gain low E

4.3

0.42

0.44

0.54%

28

Single-glazed, low solar gain low E

Hinged/Projected

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Single-glazing

low solar gain low E

3.7

0.35

0.37

0.61%

29

Single-glazed, clear

Fixed/Sliding

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Single-glazing

clear

5.4

0.63

0.63

0.69%

30

Single-glazed, tint

Fixed/Sliding

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Single-glazing

tint

5.4

0.49

0.60

0.83%

31

Single-glazed, high solar gain low E

Fixed/Sliding

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Single-glazing

high solar gain low E

4.3

0.50

0.54

0.66%

32

Single-glazed, low solar gain low E

Fixed/Sliding

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Single-glazing

low solar gain low E

3.7

0.38

0.41

0.67%

33

Double-glazed, clear / clear, air fill

Hinged/Projected

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Double-glazing with air fill

clear

3.0

0.48

0.48

0.58%

34

Double-glazed, tint / clear, air fill

Hinged/Projected

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Double-glazing with air fill

tint

2.9

0.33

0.44

0.67%

35

Double-glazed, high solar gain low E / clear, air fill

Hinged/Projected

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Double-glazing with air fill

high solar gain low E

2.3

0.26

0.32

0.48%

36

Double-glazed, low solar gain low E / clear, air fill

Hinged/Projected

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Double-glazing with air fill

low solar gain low E

2.3

0.19

0.27

0.59%

37

Double-glazed, clear / clear, air fill

Fixed/Sliding

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Double-glazing with air fill

clear

3.0

0.56

0.57

0.69%

38

Double-glazed, tint / clear, air fill

Fixed/Sliding

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Double-glazing with air fill

tint

2.9

0.42

0.37

0.73%

39

Double-glazed, high solar gain low E / clear, air fill

Fixed/Sliding

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Double-glazing with air fill

high solar gain low E

2.3

0.32

0.40

0.60%

40

Double-glazed, low solar gain low E / clear, air fill

Fixed/Sliding

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Double-glazing with air fill

low solar gain low E

2.3

0.25

0.36

0.80%

41

Double-glazed, clear / clear, argon fill

Hinged/Projected

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Double-glazing with argon fill

clear

2.6

0.50

0.51

0.61%

42

Double-glazed, tint / clear, argon fill

Hinged/Projected

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Double-glazing with argon fill

tint

2.5

0.25

0.33

0.50%

43

Double-glazed, high solar gain low E / clear, argon fill

Hinged/Projected

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Double-glazing with argon fill

high solar gain low E

2.0

0.25

0.31

0.47%

44

Double-glazed, low solar gain low E / clear, argon fill

Hinged/Projected

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Double-glazing with argon fill

low solar gain low E

2.0

0.18

0.26

0.58%

45

Double-glazed, clear / clear, argon fill

Fixed/Sliding

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Double-glazing with argon fill

clear

2.6

0.53

0.54

0.65%

46

Double-glazed, tint / clear, argon fill

Fixed/Sliding

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Double-glazing with argon fill

tint

2.5

0.28

0.17

0.76%

47

Double-glazed, high solar gain low E / clear, argon fill

Fixed/Sliding

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Double-glazing with argon fill

high solar gain low E

2.0

0.31

0.37

0.69%

48

Double-glazed, low solar gain low E / clear, argon fill

Fixed/Sliding

Timber / uPVC / Fibreglass

Double-glazing with argon fill

low solar gain low E

2.0

0.23

0.34

0.76%

49

Double-glazed, clear / clear, air fill

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium - Thermally Broken

Double-glazing with air fill

clear

3.6

0.47

0.46

0.56%

50

Double-glazed, tint / clear, air fill

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium - Thermally Broken

Double-glazing with air fill

tint

3.6

0.23

0.13

0.56%

51

Double-glazed, high solar gain low E / clear, air fill

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium - Thermally Broken

Double-glazing with air fill

high solar gain low E

3.1

0.39

0.42

0.56%

52

Double-glazed, low solar gain low E / clear, air fill

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium - Thermally Broken

Double-glazing with air fill

low solar gain low E

3.1

0.27

0.29

0.52%

53

Double-glazed, clear / clear, air fill

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium - Thermally Broken

Double-glazing with air fill

clear

3.6

0.54

0.55

0.69%

54

Double-glazed, tint / clear, air fill

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium - Thermally Broken

Double-glazing with air fill

tint

3.6

0.30

0.17

0.78%

55

Double-glazed, high solar gain low E / clear, air fill

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium - Thermally Broken

Double-glazing with air fill

high solar gain low E

3.1

0.49

0.54

0.72%

56

Double-glazed, low solar gain low E / clear, air fill

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium - Thermally Broken

Double-glazing with air fill

low solar gain low E

3.1

0.27

0.38

0.83%

57

Double-glazed, clear / clear, argon fill

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium - Thermally Broken

Double-glazing with argon fill

clear

3.5

0.47

0.46

0.56%

58

Double-glazed, tint / clear, argon fill

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium - Thermally Broken

Double-glazing with argon fill

tint

3.4

0.32

0.42

0.63%

59

Double-glazed, high solar gain low E / clear, argon fill

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium - Thermally Broken

Double-glazing with argon fill

high solar gain low E

2.9

0.44

0.49

0.64%

60

Double-glazed, low solar gain low E / clear, argon fill

Hinged/Projected

Aluminium - Thermally Broken

Double-glazing with argon fill

low solar gain low E

3.0

0.27

0.29

0.53%

61

Double-glazed, clear / clear, argon fill

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium - Thermally Broken

Double-glazing with argon fill

clear

3.5

0.64

0.64

0.78%

62

Double-glazed, tint / clear, argon fill

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium - Thermally Broken

Double-glazing with argon fill

tint

3.4

0.40

0.54

0.82%

63

Double-glazed, high solar gain low E / clear, argon fill

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium - Thermally Broken

Double-glazing with argon fill

high solar gain low E

2.9

0.51

0.57

0.76%

64

Double-glazed, low solar gain low E / clear, argon fill

Fixed/Sliding

Aluminium - Thermally Broken

Double-glazing with argon fill

low solar gain low E

3.0

0.26

0.37

0.82%

65

Single-glazed, clear

Hinged/Projected

Composite

Single-glazing

clear

5.9

0.57

0.55

0.61%

66

Single-glazed, tint

Hinged/Projected

Composite

Single-glazing

tint

6.2

0.41

0.47

0.64%

67

Single-glazed, high solar gain low E

Hinged/Projected

Composite

Single-glazing

high solar gain low E

4.6

0.36

0.36

0.44%

68

Single-glazed, low solar gain low E

Hinged/Projected

Composite

Single-glazing

low solar gain low E

4.6

0.36

0.37

0.61%

69

Single-glazed, clear

Fixed/Sliding

Composite

Single-glazing

clear

5.9

0.65

0.64

0.71%

70

Single-glazed, tint

Fixed/Sliding

Composite

Single-glazing

tint

6.2

0.45

0.53

0.72%

71

Single-glazed, high solar gain low E

Fixed/Sliding

Composite

Single-glazing

high solar gain low E

3.7

0.61

0.68

0.83%

72

Single-glazed, low solar gain low E

Fixed/Sliding

Composite

Single-glazing

low solar gain low E

4.6

0.46

0.50

0.81%

73

Double-glazed, clear / clear, air fill

Hinged/Projected

Composite

Double-glazing with air fill

clear

3.9

0.51

0.50

0.61%

74

Double-glazed, tint / clear, air fill

Hinged/Projected

Composite

Double-glazing with air fill

tint

3.9

0.32

0.41

0.61%

75

Double-glazed, high solar gain low E / clear, air fill

Hinged/Projected

Composite

Double-glazing with air fill

high solar gain low E

3.4

0.47

0.51

0.68%

76

Double-glazed, low solar gain low E / clear, air fill

Hinged/Projected

Composite

Double-glazing with air fill

low solar gain low E

3.4

0.32

0.35

0.62%

77

Double-glazed, clear / clear, air fill

Fixed/Sliding

Composite

Double-glazing with air fill

clear

3.9

0.59

0.58

0.71%

78

Double-glazed, tint / clear, air fill

Fixed/Sliding

Composite

Double-glazing with air fill

tint

3.9

0.37

0.48

0.73%

79

Double-glazed, high solar gain low E / clear, air fill

Fixed/Sliding

Composite

Double-glazing with air fill

high solar gain low E

3.4

0.53

0.59

0.78%

80

Double-glazed, low solar gain low E / clear, air fill

Fixed/Sliding

Composite

Double-glazing with air fill

low solar gain low E

3.4

0.33

0.41

0.75%

81

Double-glazed, clear / clear, argon fill

Hinged/Projected

Composite

Double-glazing with argon fill

clear

3.9

0.50

0.49

0.59%

82

Double-glazed, tint / clear, argon fill

Hinged/Projected

Composite

Double-glazing with argon fill

tint

3.9

0.33

0.42

0.64%

83

Double-glazed, high solar gain low E / clear, argon fill

Hinged/Projected

Composite

Double-glazing with argon fill

high solar gain low E

3.2

0.46

0.50

0.67%

84

Double-glazed, low solar gain low E / clear, argon fill

Hinged/Projected

Composite

Double-glazing with argon fill

low solar gain low E

2.2

0.32

0.37

0.67%

85

Double-glazed, clear / clear, argon fill

Fixed/Sliding

Composite

Double-glazing with argon fill

clear

3.9

0.63

0.63

0.76%

86

Double-glazed, tint / clear, argon fill

Fixed/Sliding

Composite

Double-glazing with argon fill

tint

3.9

0.40

0.53

0.80%

87

Double-glazed, high solar gain low E / clear, argon fill

Fixed/Sliding

Composite

Double-glazing with argon fill

high solar gain low E

3.2

0.49

0.54

0.71%

88

Double-glazed, low solar gain low E / clear, argon fill

Fixed/Sliding

Composite

Double-glazing with argon fill

low solar gain low E

2.2

0.39

0.46

0.83%

Overshadowing

BASIX considers overshadowing from:

  • existing permanent buildings, but not outhouses, sheds or temporary structures;
  • parts of your proposed building;
  • a future building on an adjacent site, if it has an approved DA or CDC; or
  • existing vegetation, if it is subject to planning control for removal.

Note: You must specify overshadowing if it is present.

Overshadowing will increase the estimated heating load and reduce the cooling loads to different degrees depending on the level of obstruction and climate zone.

Only specify overshadowing if there is an obstruction directly in front of the centre of the base of the window in plan and elevation. That is, if you were to look out the window, the obstruction would be directly in front and not wholly below or to the side. If there is a large obstruction offset to the side and you want to get the benefit of the obstruction, consider using the Simulation method.

For existing vegetation, overshadowing can be specified if it is directly in front of the window, or where there is a bare tree trunk in front of the window and the canopy is above the plane of the window.

You will need to know:

distance (away)


  • the leading edge of the building— the eaves if present or otherwise the wall; or
  • the trunk of the tree.
    (measured from the wall in which the glazing is located to)

height

    
  • the part of the building providing the most overshadowing— typically the eaves, but may be the ridge line if the roof has a steep pitch; or
  • the top of the tree.
    (measured from the base of the glazing to)

For overshading from a building, measure the distance away (D) from the window to the leading edge.Select the distance and height range that best describes the overshadowing

For overshading from a building, measure the height (H) from the sill of the window to the leading edge.Select the distance and height range that best describes the overshadowingFor overshading from a tree, measure the height (H) from the sill of the window to the top of the tree.Select the distance and height range that best describes the overshadowing

Shading

Shading device

Providing adequate shading to windows/glazed doors will reduce your cooling load. This will be essential in warm and mild climates but may not be required in cool and cold climates.

The effect on cooling loads will depend on the size of the window, type of device, orientation and other overshadowing. The heating load may also increase so in some cases you will need to design your shading to balance heating and cooling loads.

Selecting an adjustable shading device will reduce your cooling load but keep your heating load at the same level because BASIX assumes it is used in summer but drawn back in winter to permit solar gain.

Note that internal louvres or blinds are not recognised in BASIX.

BASIX recognises the following types of shading:

Note that internal louvres or blinds are not recognised in BASIX.

Frame and glass types

For new dwelling projects, the BASIX DIY method recognises 88 "default" windows. These windows differ by:

  • operating type – openable – hinged or projected, openable – sliding or non-openable – fixed
  • frame material - aluminium, thermally broken aluminium, timber/uPVC/fibreglass or composite
  • glazing system type - single-glazed, double-glazed with air fill or double-glazed with argon fill
  • outer glass type - clear, tinted/toned, Hi Tsol Low-e or Lo Tsol Low-e.

For each combination of operating type, frame material, glazing system type and outer glass type, BASIX is configured with a "default" U-value and SHGC.

Note: BASIX certificates lodged before 1 July 2017 only have access to 15 window types:

  • The frame materials are aluminium, improved aluminium and timber/uPVC.
  • The glazing system types are single-glazed or double-glazed with air fill.
  • The outer glass types are clear, toned or pyrolytic low-e.
  • The operating type is not considered.

The above 15 window types are still available to alterations and additions projects.


More information on window types applicable to alterations and additions and window types specified in DIY prior to 1 July 2017 can be found here. This  information also applies to window types available to alterations and additions projects.

Information on the requirements for grouping of windows specified in DIY prior to 1 July 2017 can be found here.

Operating type

  • Openable – hinged or projected

Hinged or projected products generally have lower air leakage rates, because the sash closes by pressing against the frame and so compression-type weather-stripping can be used. They provide excellent ventilation potential because the open sash, protruding from the plane of the wall, can be used to catch breezes. They tend to have a higher frame fraction to be strong enough to withstand wind forces.

  • Openable – sliding

Sliding products generally have higher air leakage rates, because the weather-stripping must still allow the sash to slide past. They provide lower ventilation potential because the opening is in the plane of the wall, and the opening area cannot be more than half of the glass area. They tend to have a lower frame fraction because the sash is supported on two sides by the frame, however this means they will have a higher SHGC.

  • Non-openable – fixed

Fixed products generally have lower air leakage rates. They provide no ventilation potential. They tend to have a lower frame fraction because the sash is supported on two sides by the frame.

These characteristics are summarised in the table below.

Operating typeVentilation potentialAir infiltrationFrame fraction
Hinged / projected high medium high
Sliding medium high medium
Fixed none low low

Frame material

  • Aluminium frames are very common, but tend to have higher U-values because aluminium conducts heat readily.
  • Thermally broken aluminium frames improve on the performance of a standard aluminium frame by separating the interior and exterior parts of the frame with a less conductive material joining them. These are not to be confused with "thermally improved" frames.
  • Timber frames provide excellent thermal performance, but can allow greater air infiltration.
  • uPVC (un-plasticised polyvinyl chloride) frames are made from rigid PVC, and have similar thermal performance to timber frames.
  • Fibreglass frames are made from glass-reinforced polyester, and have similar thermal performance to timber frames.
  • Composite frames use a durable material on the exterior section (such as aluminium or uPVC) and a decorative material on the interior section (such as timber).

Glazing system type

  • Single-glazing will generally have a higher U-value than double-glazing.
  • Double-glazing with air fill has two layers of glass with an airspace in between. The U-value will generally be lower than single-glazing.
  • Double-glazing with argon fill offers an improvement of between 5% and 20% over double-glazing with air fill.

Outer glass type

  • Clear glass will admit a large part of the light and heat.
  • Tinted/toned glass admits less of the light and heat by absorbing it. Spectrally selective tints are also available that preferentially transmit more of the light and absorb more of the heat (in the near-infrared spectrum).
  • Hi Tsol Low-e (pyrolytic or hard-coat Low-e) coatings reduce the emissivity of a surface of the glass so that heat is preferentially emitted in the opposite direction.
  • Lo Tsol Low-e (soft-coat Low-e) coatings not only reduce the emissivity of a surface of the glass, but are spectrally selective to preferentially transmit more of the light and less of the heat (in the near-infrared spectrum).

Certifying the windows and glazed doors in your dwelling

For the following glass and frame types, you are not required to provide certification of the U-value and SHGC of the windows installed in your dwelling:

  • aluminium frame with single-glazed clear glas
  • aluminium frame with double-glazed clear (air-filled) glass
  • timber/uPVC/fibreglass frame with single-glazed clear glass
  • timber/uPVC/fibreglass frame with double-glazed clear (air-filled) glass.

Descriptions on the BASIX certificate for the above glass and frame types must match the windows installed in your dwelling.

For all other frame and glass types

The BASIX certificate shows the maximum allowable U-value and acceptable SHGC range for the frame and glass types that you have selected. The acceptable SHGC range is +/- 10% of the value from the 88 default windows recognised in the BASIX DIY method.

Description of frame and glass types are included in the BASIX certificate as a reminder of the types you selected. It is not mandatory to match the descriptions and matching them is not sufficient on its own for certification. For these types, you must provide certification of the U-value and SHGC under National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) conditions.

Frame and glass type not on the list

You can still use another system if you know its U-value and SHGC even if the description does not match. Select from the 88 default windows that have a U-value higher than your type. The SHGC of your type should fall within 10% of the SHGC of the type that you select, or within the acceptable SHGC range on the BASIX certificate.

If you have steel-framed windows, select aluminium frame with the appropriate glass and operating type.

If you have single-sheet obscure glass, select 'single glazed tinted' glass with the appropriate frame and operating type.

If you are using glass bricks, select double-glazed clear (air-filled) glass with aluminium frame that is non-openable or fixed.

Further information

Glass manufacturers are represented by:

AGGA, AWA and WADIC members supply complete windows, skylights and doors to the public. They can supply U-value and SHGC for the frame and the glass combined (total system).

The Windows Energy Rating Scheme (WERS) also has a list of certified products and their U-value and SHGC.

Glazing size

The height and width of windows and glazed doors in BASIX thermal comfort are measured, including the glass and frame, and must be entered in millimetres (mm).

For primarily opaque doors with a small glass window, measure the height and width of the glass and the frame just around the glass and not the rest of the door.

Orientation sector

The angle of a line drawn perpendicular to the face of a window or glazed door is its azimuth.

Use the azimuth range and your north point to work out the appropriate orienation sector for each window and glazed door on your plans.

The azimuth ranges are based on True North. Survey angles on site plans are usually marked in angles from True North. Magnetic North is not an acceptable approximation of True North.

SectorAzimuth range
North >337.5° to 22.5°
Northeast >22.5° to 67.5°
East >67.5° to 112.5°
Southeast >112.5° to 157.5°
South >157.5° to 202.5°
Southwest >202.5° to 247.5°
West >247.5° to 292.5°
Northwest >292.5° to 337.5°

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